Cugnot, Nicolas Joseph

Cugnot, Nicolas Joseph
SUBJECT AREA: Land transport
b. 26 February 1725 Void, Meuse, France
d. 2 October 1804 Paris, France
French military engineer.
Cugnot studied military engineering in Germany and returned to Paris by 1769, having left the service of Austria, where he taught military engineering. It was while serving in the army of Les Pays Bas that he invented a "fusil" or carbine, which was adopted by the Archduke Charles and put into service in the Uhlan regiments.
In 1769 he invented a fardier à feu, also called a cabriolet, a steam-driven, heavy three-wheeled vehicle. This tractor, designed to pull artillery pieces, was driven through its single front wheel by two single-acting cylinders which rotated the wheel through ratchets. The ratchet pawls were carried on levers pivoted on the wheel axis, coupled to the piston rods by connecting rods. Links from pivots half-way along the levers connected upwards to a rocking cross-beam fixed on the end of the steam cock so as to pass steam alternately from the undersized boiler to the two cylinders. The tractor had to be stopped whenever it needed stoking, and its maximum speed was 4 mph (6.4 km/h). The difficulty of controlling it led to its early demolition of a wall, after which it was locked away and eventually preserved in the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers in Paris. This was, in fact, Cugnot's second vehicle: the first model was presented to the due de Choiseul et Guiberuval, who asked for a more robust and powerful machine which was built at the Arsenal at the expense of the state and tested in 1771. Cugnot was granted a pension of 600 livres. After the revolution he tried in vain in 1798 and 1801 to interest Bonaparte in this invention.
Cugnot published a number of military textbooks, including: 1766, Eléments de l'art militaire.
1769, Fortification et campagne théorie et practice.
1778, Theory of Fortification.
Further Reading
D.J.H.Day, 1980, Engines.
A.F.Burstall, 1963, A History of Mechanical Engineering. 1933, Dictionnaire de biographie française.

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

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  • Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot — Born 26 February 1725 Void Vacon, Lorraine Died 2 October 1804 Nationality French Work Significant projects …   Wikipedia

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  • CUGNOT (N. J.) — CUGNOT NICOLAS JOSEPH (1725 1804) La première réalisation d’un véhicule terrestre à vapeur (un tracteur pour le transport des canons) revient à l’ingénieur militaire français Nicolas Joseph Cugnot, né à Void en Lorraine. Le projet ayant été… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Cugnot — (Nicolas Joseph) (1725 1804) inventeur français d un véhicule à vapeur qui transportait des charges, le fardier (1771) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Joseph Cugnot — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Nicolas Joseph Cugnot (26 de febrero de 1725 2 de octubre de 1804) fue un inventor francés a quien el gobierno francés atribuye la invención del primer vehículo autopropulsado o automóvil.[1] Esta reclamación está… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joseph Cugnot — Nicolas Joseph Cugnot est un ingénieur militaire français, né à Void Vacon, Meuse, le 26 février 1725, mort à Paris le 7 octobre 1804[1], connu pour avoir conçu et réalisé, entre 1769 et 1771, le premier véhicule automobile… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Cugnot — (spr. Künjoh), Nicolas Joseph, geb. 1725 zu Void in Lothringen, diente unter Prinz Karl in den Niederlanden als Ingenieur, wurde 1763 Lehrer der Kriegswissenschaften in Paris, wanderte nach Brüssel aus, erhielt nach seiner Rückkehr eine Pension u …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Cugnot —   [ky ɲo], Nicolas Joseph, * Void (heute Void Vacon, Département Meuse) 25. 2. 1725, ✝ Paris 10. 10. 1804; zuerst Ingenieuroffizier; schrieb u. a. über den Festungsbau; baute 1765 und 1770 die ersten mit Dampfkraft betriebenen Wagen, die aber… …   Universal-Lexikon

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